If the accused acknowledges in express words the guilt in a criminal charge, the purpose of the procedure seems to have been reached; and yet at all times and in all nations experience has suggested a certain distrust of confessions. But as soon as experimental psychology began to work in its own workshops, it was most natural to carry the new method persistently to new and ever new groups of problems. Using the library, Internet, or any other available materials, discuss the following:Discuss his reasons for stating […] Hugo description of results is given below. Next in order perhaps we study the judgment of our subject in his estimation of space and time distances, then the accuracy with which he imitates a given rhythm, then the rapidity with which he counts the letters of a page, then the sharpness of attention with which he discriminates a set of short impressions, and so on through other tests for other mental functions. On this basis he was condemned to death. He has perhaps little to contribute, as only in very recent days has the psychological laboratory come into connection with the world of crime, but that little is the more needed to awake interest for this too much neglected aspect of the case. When I saw that they had treated me mildly, inasmuch as they had started in the wine cellar and had forgotten under its genial influence, on the whole, what they had come for, I had taken only a superficial survey. There are inner associations, where one thing awakens in our minds something else which has similarity to it, or to which it is related as a part to the whole or the whole to a part, and so on. The observation itself may be defective and illusory; wrong associations may make it imperfect; judgments may misinterpret the experience; and suggestive influences may falsify the data of the senses. He said, 'I saw the flash of steel in front of me. Her average association-time was slow, nearly 2 seconds. But a number of associations have been changed, and a careful analysis will show that these are first of all the suspicious ones. He was not born a "dope fiend"; he did not choose the poison. I receive thus one hundred associations which are independent of any intentional selection, showing just the paths of least resistance in the mind of my man. I began with some simple psychological tricks with which every student of psychology is familiar, but which were naturally unknown and somewhat uncanny to the witness. His experiments can indicate best how the energies of mill-hands can reach the best results, and how advertisements ought to be shaped, and what belongs to ideal salesmanship. And we demand from our normal memory even that it follows somewhat our own imagination. And this alteration may affect more and more the deeper layers of emotional thought and the whole man may be for a long time a new man before the outside becomes aware of it, or before he himself can explain the sudden changes in his attitudes and in his actions, in his judgments and his self-consciousness. All the experimental sciences teach us to understand the world by bringing its manifoldness to the simplest formula. That alone gave a hint that my house also had been entered; but from the first moment he insisted that there had been two in this burglary and that the other [p. 43] man had the remainder of the booty. I wondered why a revolver should be pointed at me,'" and so forth.It would be absurd to fancy that this last turn of his mind was a made-up story to escape punishment. How is it altered by interruption of training or by the feeling-tone of the ideas? They have taken, for instance, whole epic texts and examined those lines as to which it was doubtful whether they belonged originally to the poem or were later interpolations. Thus we begin by finding the average for each individual, and all our interest goes into the deviations from this average. It made hardly a difference whether the view of the prosecution or the view of the defence was taken: seen from any side, the witness offered a psychological problem of unusual interest. Whenever I spoke a sentence before-hand, I was able to influence the seeing of the word. The trait becomes psychologically alarming as soon as the balance is sufficiently destroyed to make the purposes of life impossible. Evidently primitive life sharpens the observation of such symptoms. But, in spite of this lack of organic pain, -- he has never been ill, -- he is sensitive to the immediate perception of suffering in others. To make them feel that they are recognised as equals means to win them over to decency. Most complex and partly moral questions are involved therein. His regular work was with his father at the trade of carpenter. Thus if a new name, for instance, is brought in, the method is reliable; the innocent, who never heard the name before, will not be more excited if he hears that one among a dozen others; the criminal, who knows the name as that of a witness of the crime, will show the emotional symptoms. It is claimed that this country spends annually five hundred million dollars more on fighting the existing crime than on all its works of charity, education and religion; the feeling is at last growing that a fraction of that expense and energy would be ample for providing that such a quantity of habitual crime should not come to existence at all. Experiment shows that such watching and conscious sanctioning takes time, and the replacing of the unfit word by a fitting word brings still larger loss of time; nobody is able to look out for the harmlessness of his associations and yet to associate them with the average quickness with which the commonplace ideas are brought forth. Hugo Münsterberg (/ ˈ m ʊ n s t ər b ɜːr ɡ /; June 1, 1863 – December 16, 1916) was a German-American psychologist.He was one of the pioneers in applied psychology, extending his research and theories to industrial/organizational (I/O), legal, medical, clinical, educational and business settings. But everyone may agree at least in this: that hypnotism is not without serious consequences and is therefore certainly not a plaything. No psychologist will deny this effect. The insane or the hypnotised mind has no freedom and therefore cannot commit crime, but the merely stupid or reckless or brutal or indifferent minds are still free, while it is clear that the probability of a disastrous result is for them alarmingly high. Of course, there nevertheless still remains much under heated discussion. After that they were asked to underline those parts of their reports of which they felt so absolutely certain that they would be ready to take an oath before court on the underlined words. The untrue confessions from hope or fear, through promises and threats, from cunning calculations and passive yielding thus shade off into others which are given with real conviction under the pressure of emotional excitement or under the spell of overpowering influences, Even the mere fatigue often brought to the Salem witches the loosening of the mental firmness and the intrusion of the suggestion of guilt. 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